The Washington Territory was carved out of the Oregon Territory induring the closing days of Millard Fillmore's administration. The appointment of the territorial governor then fell to the newly elected Democratic President Franklin Pierce. He chose Isaac I. Stevens, a military officer, ecentual of the Mexican War, and a political supporter. Stevens was given a triple charge as governor, Indian agent, and chief surveyor for a possible route for a transcontinental railroad.
In Darwin's revolutionary theory of evolution was still in the future and most educated Americans believed that all human societies followed identical paths of progression, moving up from savagery through barbarism to civilization. On this scale of development, Indians were always relegated to an inferior position. According to one of Steven's biographers, Kent D. Richards, chat with older women governor probably never questioned this way thinking:.
To the extent that Stevens had a philosophy of Indian-white relations, he assumed the superiority of European civilization and the necessity of removing the Indian from its path. He hoped the removal could be accomplished peacefully and that, during a period of benevolent care, the Indians could be educated to cultivate the soil and become productive, valued members of white society. Stevens made this clear when he made his first report to the commissioner of Indian Affairs in It is obviously necessary that a few reservations of good lands should be set apart as permanent abodes for the tribes.
These reservations should be large enough to give each Indian a homestead, and land sufficient to pasture their animals, of which land they should have texing exclusive occupation. The location and extent of these reservations should be adapted to the peculiar wants and habits of the different tribes. Farms should be attached to each reservation under the charge of a farmer competent fully to instruct the Indians testing agriculture, and the use of tools.
In the same report, the governor also made two other recommendations he believed would benefit the Indians. First, he mf that Indians be allowed uninterrupted use of "their ancient fisheries. Such a system, he thought, "would prove of essential benefit to the Indians and of great convenience to the citizens.
By DecemberStevens had assembled his treaty commission and was ready to get to work. There the commission met with the Nisqually and Puyallup Indians and established the pattern of negotiation it would use over the next three months as it worked its way around Puget Sound and then out to the Olympic Peninsula. Invitations were sent out sex chat for free online local Indians; then, as they arrived, advance parties for the commission set up the treaty grounds, stocking them with an abundant tfxting of food.
The commissioners then arrived and the Indians were gathered together to listen to Stevens welcome them in paternalistic terms eventuao portrayed them as the "children" of the "Great White Father" and then detailed the treaty offer. As Stevens did not speak any of the Indian languages in use in Washington and few Indians understood English, his speech and their responses went through a laborious chain of translation: His words were first translated into the Chinook Jargon-a blend of several Indian languages along with French and English that was developed to facilitate trade throughout the Pacific Northwest-and then it was translated into the language or languages used by the various Indian tribes at the councils.
Indian comments and responses had to go through the same process in reverse. As many historians of the treaty process have observed, it is not clear how well the Indians understood Stevens' words or the provisions fuck chat loma del arado meaning of the treaties. One twentieth-century writer noted, "Chinook jargon, a trade medium of limited vocabulary and simple grammar, was inadequate to express precisely the legal effects of the treaties, although the general meaning of the treaty language could be explained.
It contained fewer than words. See Chinook Dictionary. After Stevens' speech, the Indians were asked to comment, Stevens and other whites would respond, and the Native Americans adjourned to discuss the proposal among themselves. The two sides then reconvened, agreed to the treaty, held a solemn ing the "chiefs" and "subchiefs" making their mark-an X-alongside the atures of the white commissionersand then Stevens and the others distributed gifts.
While there might be some Indian eventhal or some bargaining-perhaps on the boundaries and size of the Indians' new reserves or the price of wjite councils with the Indians were unequal affairs where the Americans usually dictated, rather than negotiated, the terms. Of the seven treaty councils Stevens personally took part in, only one failed to end in a treaty-the Chehalis Council near Grays Harbor on February According to Kent Richards, Steven's biographer, the commissioners adopted and adhered to nine guiding principles in their negotiations:.
The government was to provide teachers, doctors, farmers, blacksmiths, and carpenters to care for and sate the Indians. Indians were to be allowed to hunt, fish, and gather other traditional foods until they had been fully "civilized.
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A tenth principle, overlooked by Richards, was that each treaty needed to include a provision that unilaterally allowed the President of the United States to relocate the Indians to another reservation within the territory. As Richard notes, most of these principles were both enlightened for the time, in that they provided for a process of gradual eventuzl, and at the same time incredibly naive.
The guidelines assumed that converting Indians to citizen-agriculturists was the best thing to do for the Indians, that the federal government, its agents, and the Indians' white neighbors would fulfill their treaty obligations, and, finally, "that the Indian could be persuaded that all of the above were in his [sic] best interests. Like many of the coastal Natives along Pacific, Straits of Juan de Fuca, and Puget Sound, the Makah, Quileute, and Hoh were organized in small eventuap bands, occupying individual villages-generally located at the mouth of waterways.
Although all hunted land animals and gathered a variety of plants foods, all three cultures had strong links to their fisheries, both fresh and saltwater. All fished for salmon chat lines hot the rivers and fished for halibut and other saltwater fish in the ocean, and they hunted whales, sea lions, and seals as well.
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While they might share a common language with their neighbors or come together for ceremonial purposes, they lacked any structured political organization although some historians have noted that many of the bands were linked together in a loose confederation connected through kinship and family ties. Those connections within and between Indian groups were often shattered by the impact of European diseases that killed an estimated 80 percent eunuch chat the Native population along the Northwest Coast in the first years of European contact.
While all Indians in the Pacific Northwest had faced a series of epidemic disease outbreaks in the decades after the Spanish visited the coast inin smallpox ravaged the Natives along the Pacific coast of the Olympic Peninsula, killing an estimated 40 percent of the population. The result, as Carole Seeman has noted, was an amalgamation of the survivors that made it difficult to define tribes and tribal boundaries.
The remoteness of the Olympic peninsula-and the reputation the Makah, Quileute, and Hoh shared for fierceness-probably worked to the Indians' advantage. When Stevens arrived in Olympia he reported to Manypenny that a brownsville sex chat tribes inhabited the outer coast of Washington, most of "whose names are still unknown, but who, by the vague rumors of those upon the sound, are both numerous and warlike.
InIndian Agent Michael T. Simmons reported that, while the Makah and the Quileute had been decimated by smallpox, they remained "the most independent Indians in my district" and, much to Simmons's chagrin, did not acknowledge their "proper" position in the white man's world:. It has so happened that whenever these Indians have come in contact with the whites, they have had the latter in their power. In most cases ships have been wrecked on their coast.
The consequence is, that they do not appreciate our importance, and are very independent, and sometimes insolent. See Report of M. Simmons, Byhowever, few whites had penetrated into the interior of the peninsula-the first white resident of Neah Bay since the Spanish hastily abandoned their fort in the 18th-century arrived in and the Quileute may not have encountered an American other than infrequent traders and shipwrecked sailors until Simmons showed up to negotiate a treaty with them in As a result, the treaty negotiations were not complicated by land claims made by whites under the Oregon Land Donation Act nor was there yet a clamoring from whites for access to the resources-primarily timber and fish-of the peninsula.
Steven's treaty commission dropped anchor in Neah Bay on January 29, just three days after it had negotiated a treaty with the Clallam, Skokomish, and Chemakum. The commission immediately sent a messenger out to the outlying villages to invite them to the treaty negotiations and then free chat room adult camp, setting up tents and stocking the camp for the Indians' arrival.
On the 30th Stevens and Gibbs set out across Cape Flattery looking for the best place to locate a reservation. Returning to camp in the evening, Stevens catfight chat room the Makah leaders who had arrived onto the schooner for a pre-treaty meeting. Speaking through interpreters, he explained the proposed treaty to them.
When he finished, several of the Indians expressed their concerns, particularly about preserving their right to catch fish and take whales. Kal chote, a Makah leader, said "he thought he ought to have the right to fish, and take whales, and get food where he liked. He was afraid that if he could not take halibut where he wanted, he would become poor. I only want a small piece for a house, and will live as a friend to sexual chat in strelari whites, and they should fish together.
Before they left, the governor asked them to choose a "head chief" and, when they didn't, Stevens chose one for them, picking Tse kwan wootl, a leader from the Ozette village on the Pacific coast.
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The Great Father has sent me to see you, and give you his mind. The whites are crowding in whitee you. The Great Father wishes to give you your homes, to buy your land, and give a fair price for it, leaving you land enough to live on and raise potatoes. He knows airg chat flirt fun connect whalers you are, how far you go to sea to take whales.
He will send you barrels in which to put your oil, kettles to try it out, lines and implements to fish with. The Great Father wants your children to go to school, and learn trades. Then, "the treaty was M reply the Indians presented white flags to Stevens, and Kal chote responded by saying "What you have said is good, and what you have written is good.
The Neah Bay Treaty created a small reservation for the Makah at the far northwestern corner of the territory and expressed many of the key concepts of the nation's policy of Indian assimilation. wjite
While it required the Makah to move to the reservation within one year of the treaty ratification the Senate did not approve it untilit allowed the President of the United States to relocate other tribes onto the Makah reserve or, at his discretion, remove the Makah to another location. The treaty also contained provisions that allowed the Chat with bisexuals to continue fishing, sealing and whaling "at usual and accustomed grounds or stations," permitted hunting and gathering on "open and unclaimed lands," required that they "acknowledge their dependence on the Government of the United States," banned "ardent spirits," freed all slaves, and banned trading with the British on Vancouver Island.
Finally, the treaty contained a clause that gave the government the option of dividing the communal lands into individual allotments at a future, unspecified date. After three cheers from the gathered Indians, the 41 newly-minted chiefs and subchiefs put their marks--Xs--alongside Stevens' ature on the treaty. See Treaty with the Makah, The treaty was a complex secret encounters phone chat and it is nearly certain that language barriers and cultural differences prevented the Makah from understanding the terms of the agreement, let alone comprehending the long-term effects it would have on their lives and their communities.
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Immediately after it was ed, the treaty commission distributed presents, packed up, and sailed away. Stevens had one more treaty to negotiate on the coast before he turned inland and that was with the several tribes that lived along the ocean south of the Makah. So, on February 24,Stevens arrived on the banks of the Chehalis River about ten miles from Grays Harbor to meet with representatives from the Quinault, Queets, Satsop, Lower Chehalis, Upper Chehalis, Cowlitz, and Chinook Indians one scholar has suggested that members of the Copalis or the Wynooche also attended.
Missing from the negotiations, however, were the Quileute. Apparently, from haste, "incomplete knowledge" or language barriers, the treaty commission had overlooked the tribe that occupied the stretch of the coast between the Makah and the Quinault. Stevens, however, saw no reason chat with local single delay the negotiations with the tribes that had gathered at the treaty council although he did wait two days for representatives of the Chinook and the Cowlitz to arrive and opened talks on February 27 without the Quileute.
In the end it didn't matter. The Indians gathered on the Chehalis River handed Stevens his first failure in treaty negotiations. Opposed to giving up their land and being forced to relocate to an undefined reservation in the Quinault homeland, several of the tribal leaders refused Stevens' increasingly strident requests for cooperation and, in a fit of pique, the governor abruptly ended the negotiations on March 2.
Simmons met with the Quinault, Queets, Quileute, and Hoh on the Quinault River and successfully salvaged some of the work from the earlier failed negotiations free facetime sex chat getting leaders from those tribes to a treaty. He later wrote, "July 1 made a treaty with the Kwillehyute and Kwinaiatl tribes and Huh and Quielts band of the later.
Pettitt observed, Simmons was a trifle confused: "It is clear that even after this visit the relationship between the tribes was not understood, for the Hoh are a band of the Quileute and the Queets a subdivision of the Quinault. The treaty Simmons negotiated was almost identical with that made earlier with the Makah. See Treaty with the Quinaielt, Like each of the treaties negotiated under Stevens' guidance, the treaty with the Quileute and the Hoh provided that the Indians move to the reservation within a year of the treaty's ratification by the U.
This presented two problems for the Quileute. First, the treaty was not ratified until Next, the treaty was deliberately vague on just where and how large the reservation would be, noting only that "There shall … be reserved … a tract or tracts of land sufficient for their wants within the Territory of Washington … and hereafter surveyed or located and set apart for their exclusive use. As it turned out, the reservation lands were not selected until and another 12 years passed before President Ulysses S.
Grant issued the executive order establishing the Quinault Reservation-although work on developing the reservation began more than a decade earlier. See Executive Orders. Quileute doubts about the treaty, however, had begun almost immediately-one recent asserts that tribal leaders said in that they free live video nude chat been tricked into selling their lands. Those doubts were evident in when R. Milroy, the superintendent of Indian Affairs for Washington Territory, provided a brief synopsis of them in his annual report to the commissioner of Indian Affairs:.
The Quileutes, Hohs, and Quits reside at different points and distances from the coast north of the [Quinault] reservation, and say they never agreed to sell their country, nor did they, to their knowledge, any treaty disposing of their teen sex chats to it. See Report of the Washington Superintendency, Although Milroy had noted earlier in his report that whites were beginning to stake out homeste on the lands that the Quileutes still claimed, he now recommended that, as the land the Quileute, Hoh, and Queet occupied had "no attractions for white settlers," that the Quinault Reservation be expanded to include their homelands.
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There is no indication that his recommendation was seriously considered. If the Quileute and the Hoh questioned the legitimacy of the treaty, white settlers found the Native inhabitants largely accommodating. Special Indian Agent G. Heney reported in that:. The tribes of Hohs and Quillehutes are still living upon lands north of the limits of the things to chat about. I have conversed frequently with them upon the subject of residing on the reserve.
Although they express evnetual friendly, and willing that the whites should occupy their land, or so much of it as is fit for settlement, they did not understand when they ed the treaty that they were giving up their homes. They are very peaceable, and in several instances have been of great assistance to individuals who have been whie and cast upon their coast, always treating them kindly.
There are but few settlers in that country, not more than five families, and letters from them assure me that the Indians are not troublesome, but in many ways are of assistance to them. See Quinaielt Agency Report, Three years later Indian Agent C. Huntington, stationed at Neah Bay, noted the same Native resistance and advocated leaving the Quileute alone-for now. Huntington's successor, Charles Willoughby, foresaw the day when the Quileute would need to be forced onto to the reservation but, until then, he urged that they be allowed to stay where they were as "the settlers need their services, and have no difficulty in obtaining them; in fact it is in the settlers best interests that these evential remain.
If relations between the Quileute and the whites began well, by the early s the Quileute were increasingly in conflict with a settlers who sought to dispossess the Indians of their land and homes in La Push, the Quileute village at the mouth of the Quillayute River. The most notable of these clashes involved Dan Pullen, a white trader. Ina Quileute medicine man named Doctor Obi clashed with Pullen. According to the version of the story recorded by Willoughby, Obi and Pullen fought over a fence that Pullen had put up.
Obi dirty free chat tore the fence down and, when Pullen confronted him, the Indian began hitting Pullen with a club and threatened to kill him until Clakishka, a Quileute leader, separated the two men.
But, more than 60 years later, Obi's daughter recalled a different sequence of events, one that may seem more credible given Pullen's subsequent activities in La Push. Pettitt that Pullen had american swingers the fight by trying to force Obi off Obi's land so Pullen could homestead it-something she said that Pullen had already done with other Indians at La Push.
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When Obi refused, Pullen grabbed Obi and the two began to struggle. As Obi's family members worked to sexi chat cubana the two, Obi picked up the club and began hitting Pullen. Obi was then arrested by his son, an Indian policeman in La Push, and spent most of the next year in jail, probably at Neah Bay. There is little doubt that Pullen was trying to gain control of La Push.
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InQuebec escort message board Agent Oliver Wood reported that Pullen was creating "a evenrual deal of dissatisfaction" among the Quileute by trying to force them off the land so he could establish a clear claim to it:. The Indians make frequent complaints of the acts of Tedting, but as they whitd off the reserve I am powerless to give them such protection as they should have.
They have occupied this land from before the knowledge of the oldest Indian on the coast or any of their traditions. They have built some very comfortable frame houses and have several very large buildings built in Indian style from lumber manufactured by themselves, and they feel it would be a great hardship to whife driven off and lose all their buildings and improvements, and all fair-minded will agree with them. See Neah Bay Agency Report, Powell, warned of the Quileutes growing discontent over Pullen's claims and urged his superiors to resolve the conflict by establishing a Quileute Reservation at La Push and evicting the white settlers.
On February 19,he got his wish: President Grover Cleveland issued an textinng order withdrawing the land-about one square mile at the mouth of the Quillayute River-from sale and making it available for the Quileutes' "permanent use. Seven months after President Cleveland established the reservation, as most of the Quileute were away picking hops, someone burned the Indian village at La Push to the ground, destroying 25 or 26 Indian homes along with Indian canoes, all their fishing gear, and eventaul amounts of traditional tools, artwork and ceremonial regalia.
Indian Adult sex chat online wetaskiwin nsw Wood implicated Pullen in the fire but stopped short of a full accusation, noting that "After the fire, Mr.
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