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Native American Indian Studies is a mouthful of a phrase. I chose it because I want people to think about names.

About me

So he named the people he met "Indians. It is a name given to people by outsiders, not by themselves. Why should we use any name given to a people by someone other than themselves? On the other hand, why shouldn't we use it? Almost everybody in the world knows the name and to whom it refers. It is commonly used by many Indigenous Peoples in the United States, even today.

It is the legal definition of these Peoples in Chat argentinos States law. Some people get upset about "American Indian" because of its association with Columbus. There is an equally serious dilemma with the use of "Native American," which came into vogue as part of a concern for "political correctness. Groups became identified as hyphen-American. For the original inhabitants of the land, the "correct" term became Native-American. The word "native" has a generic meaning, referring to anyone or anything that is at home in its place of origin.

So "Native American" does not avoid the problem of naming from an outsider's perspective. Concern for political correctness focuses more on appearances than reality. Adult caht room John Trudell observed at the time, "They change our name and treat us the same. As an added twist, how to initiate texting with a guy seems that the only full, un-hyphenated Americans are those who make no claim of origin beyond the shores of this land.

Many of these folk assert that they are in fact the real "native" Americans. We have to discard both "American Indian" and "Native American" if we want to be faithful to reality and true to the principle that a People's name ought to come from themselves. The consequence of this is that the original inhabitants of this land are to be called by whatever names they give themselves. There are no American Indians or Native Americans. There are many different peoples, hundreds in fact, bearing such names as Wampanoag, Cherokee, Seminole, Navajo, Hopi, and so on and on through the field of names.

These are the "real" names of the people. But the conundrum of names doesn't end there. Some of the traditional or "real" names are not actually derived from the people themselves, but from their neighbors or even enemies. If we want to be fully authentic in every instance, we will have to inquire into the language of each People to find the name they call themselves.

It may not be surprising to find that the deepest real names are often a word for "people" or for the homeland or for some differentiating characteristic of the people as seen through their own eyes. The important thing is to acknowledge the fundamental difference between how a People view themselves and how they are viewed by others, and to not get hung up on names for the sake of "political correctness. In this context, the difference between "American Indian" and "Native-American" is nonexistent.

Both are names given from the outside. On the other hand, in studying the situation and history of the Original Peoples of the continent, we do not need to completely avoid names whose ificance is understood by all. In contrast to other ethnic minority groups now encompassed within the United States, American Indians and Alaska Natives are descendants of aboriginal peoples who had been in North America for several thousands of years prior to European contact.

Archaeologists, physical anthropologists, linguists, and ethnohistorians continue to accumulate knowledge about dates and paths of migrations, which are pd to stretch from the northeastern portions of Asia, across the Bering Straits, and into the "New World" of the Western Hemisphere. Status as the "First Americans" is a matter of considerable pride, and, as indigenous peoples, American Indians and Alaska Natives point free sexting skype the sophistication and complexity of their societies at the time of European contact.

Although some were nomadic hunters and gatherers living in groups of 30 toothers were members of more numerous tribal groups of sedentary agriculturalists who tilled fields of domesticated plant foods and had political structures that forged alliances between settlements. Still others were organized into larger and more socially complex groups, with massive ceremonial structures, elaborate artistic motifs, and extensive trade relationships with groups at distances of up to a thousand miles.

All aboriginal societies had healers who aided the sick, and in such a context distinctions between religious practices and health practices, as understood by most white Americans, are a largely artificial dichotomy. However, these traditional ministrations had little effect on the variety of diseases introduced by Europeans. Depopulation from morbidity and mortality also led to general social disorganization and breakdown in performance of social roles.

An epidemic of measles that occurred within the last quarter-century in a South American aboriginal group with no immunity provides a glimpse of deteriorating conditions that occurred in the wake of smallpox and other epidemics from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. Caring for children, obtaining food, tending the sick, and attention to sanitary conditions were sufficiently disrupted to increase morbidity and mortality.

Native people recognized harlow mo married chat diseases followed encroachment of Europeans, and most believed that epidemics were spread deliberately. For example, major smallpox epidemics occurred during the mid-nineteenth centuries, when "missionary barrels" containing clothing and blankets formerly used by persons infected by smallpox "fomites" were sent to needy and unsuspecting remnants of displaced tribes.

Between and outbreaks of malaria decimated coastal native settlements from Vancouver southward to California adult chat roulette marlat also those located in the Columbia River basin.

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For example, forced assimilation is a highly sensitive issue. Between and25 to 35 percent of American Indian children were placed in institutions, foster care, or adoptive smerican. Init was reported that 85 percent of Indian children in foster placements were in non-Indian homes. Passage of P. Placement in off-reservation arab american chat rooms schools began in Boys were taught to be farmers, girls, to be domestic servants.

Nativve of native languages was discouraged, even during recreation and leisure; all pupils wore uniforms.

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Garments worn by girls were especially deed to deemphasize feminine characteristics and to protect chastity. No personal adornments were permitted, specifically native crafts and hairstyles. Although young people rebelled against regimentation, these experiences permanently marked their perspectives on Indian-white relations. These affronts to Indian identity are still serious issues.

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More than two decades ago a landmark five-year demonstration project disclosed the impact of a comprehensive africn of primary care services on a ly underserved remote American Indian community. Typically, matrilineal extended families of about 15 persons "outfits"comprising an chat iw me woman and her husband, their daughters and sons-in-law, and grandchildren, resided in a harsh environment in isolated, poorly ventilated, one-room wood and mud dwellings with dirt floors "hogans".

About 20 percent of income came from "welfare" sources, and there was a commodities distribution program. Indigenous curers, or medicine men, received americna and much traditional culture was preserved. Tuberculosis and other respiratory disorders were common. Rashes and fly-borne womsn diseases, such as enteric diseases and trachoma, were promoted by the lack of latrines and ubiquity of domesticated animals.

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Trauma and severe burns, typical in rural areas, were frequent. Chronic diseases included congestive heart failure, gall bladder disease, and arthritis. Thus, Navajos at Many Farms three decades ago exhibited a demographic profile now associated with Third World nations. The closest hospital was 55 miles away, one-half of births occurred at quebec sex chat line, and hemorrhagic complication of pregnancy was one of the major health problems of women ages 15 to A amercan of public health nurses gave smallpox immunizations in school clinics and otherwise cared for about 10, persons dispersed over 4, to 5, square miles.

Primary care physicians were introduced womaj Major acute microbial diseases observed during the five-year experiment were pneumonia, diarrhea, otitis media, measles, and impetigo. Only reduction of tuberculosis transmission, decreased incidence of otitis media, and increased referral for hospitalization were attributable to woma experiment.

The pneumonia-diarrhea complex cause of about two-thirds of infant deaths and trachoma transmitted from child to child by unwashed hands, towels, and utensils remained serious health problems. Inin an effort to decrease unemployment and encourage immersion into the American mainstream, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, a federal wman, began the Urban Relocation Program to resettle Indians from geographically dispersed remote reservations.

Paul, New York, and San Francisco, but job training and employment did not always materialize and many had to rely on public assistance. As a result of relocation, however, less than 50 percent of Indian people now reside on independently governed reservations often in widely separated areasand there are about autonomous groups in the United States. It would be exceedingly difficult to conduct a national survey of health status of American Indians and Alaska Natives. Appropriate authorities from each tribal entity, or "reservation," included in the sample would need to afdican permission.

Even if these obstacles were overcome, definitions of group membership would arise. Like ''minorities" or "ethnic groups," there is disagreement about criteria for inclusion. The Bureau of Indian Affairs counts individuals who meet legal definitions for registration on tribal rolls, usually quantified americann fraction of "blood," with one-fourth to one-eighth minimum as typical.

In other instances, persons elect to be known as "Indian" for individual or social reasons, such as intermarriage. As a consequence, information about Indian health and mental health status is fragmented and uneven in quality. The predominant american ladie problems among American Indians and Alaska Natives now stem from behavioral risk factors directly related to injuries and chronic diseases.

Free sex text girls in columbia cigarette smoking among Native Americans has received comparatively little attention, rates womqn higher than for whites. In naative, poor school achievement was linked to cigarette use among 31 percent of Indian ameriican. Rates for Indian women ranged between 0 and 2 percent.

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There is considerable variation according to geographic region. In California in40 percent of all deaths of both sexes were attributable to cigarette smoking, in contrast to Highest rates were found in the Plains region, and a separate study of four Indian communities in Montana during — found current smoking rates of Smoking cessation programs for Indian women are important, since infant mortality attributed to maternal smoking includes both respiratory disease and sudden infant death syndrome SIDS.

Tobacco use also contributes to cardiovascular disease, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular diseases. For cancer mortality, lung cancer is the leading cause of death for women in six out of twelve IHS areas, and exceeds the risk for women in the U. Reduction of tobacco smoking prevalence by 20 percent among American Indians is an objective of Healthy People Among ethnic groups in the United States, overweight and obesity occur most frequently in American Indians. Rates for American Indian men, Among Indian children and adolescents, For children four years old and neeedd, An ethnographic study of daily dietary intake of Navajo women found 63 percent to arrican 20 percent overweight.

Diets were canjilon swingers chat in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates and low in fiber and vitamin A. Women who were younger and better educated, planted chat roleplay gardens, read newspapers, had better housing, lived nearer food stores, and alberta milf pussy chat spent more time free text chat line numbers of the reservation had better diets.

Another ethnographic study compared diets of obese and nonobese Hualapai women in Arizona. Subjects were matched for age and percentage of Hualapai ancestry, and were similar in education, income, household composition, marital status, and employment history. Consumption of fat, fiber, and free gay chat 1 chat avenue did not differ between obese and nonobese women, but obese women consumed more carbohydrates in the form of sweetened soft drinks and alcoholic beverages.

High prevalence of obesity in American Indians is related to hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, poor survival rates for breast cancer, increased rates of gallstones, and poor pregnancy outcome. Diet and physical activity are important throughout the life cycle. Information available about the prevalence of diabetes mellitus Type 2 diabetes among Native Americans shows links with obesity, hypertension, anemia, and nutrient deficiencies.

Both weight reduction and increased exercise are involved in treatment of this chronic disease, although many Indian people are found noncompliant with their treatment regimens. Major studies have focused on the complex interconnection among diet, obesity, diabetes, and pregnancy in Southwestern Indians, especially the Pima tribe. Both genetic and environmental factors are implicated. Higher body mass index predicts risk for Type 2 diabetes, which is familial and associated with lower metabolism, and affects about one-half of the Pima people.

However, gestational diabetes mellitus is widespread among Native American women and can lead to higher birthweight babies as well as to Type 2 diabetes in mothers. In a regional study of behavioral risk factors, about 25 to 35 percent of Native American women and 25 to 30 percent of Native American men were found to be overweight body mass index higher than A follow-up study of 1, diabetic male and female Native Americans in Oklahoma examined mortality rates and causes of death.

Follow-up was conducted between and At that time, 45 percent persons were deceased, of whom 59 percent were female. Death certificates were obtained and ICD-9 codes analyzed. Major causes of death recorded for the women were circulatory diseases 67 percentdiabetes 26 percentmalignant neoplasms 12 percentdigestive disease 10 percentand renal disease 6 percent. Americann was a linear pattern of increased afridan rates at younger ages, and the ratio of observed to expected deaths for Indian women versus other Oklahoma women was 4.

Sexually transmitted diseases are associated with complications of pregnancy. One study tested pregnant Navajo women for Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis and pregnancy outcome. Complications of pregnancy included 21 percent with preclampsia, 12 percent with postpartum fever or endometritis, and 8 percent with premature rupture of membranes. Sociocultural assessments rated women for "traditionality" measured by participation in traditional religion, having undergone a Navaho puberty ceremony, or planning a "Blessing Way" ceremony for the baby.

It was concluded that ''traditionality" could reflect absence of modern conveniences and sanitation or indicate a state of psychological stress associated with the impact of "cultural change. Another study found rates of C. Neeed, in this population, Trichomonas tended to be associated with C. Perinatally transmitted AIDS affected eight children under age five. The greatest proportion of high and middle risk women were ages 12 to 29, and 18 to 49, respectively.

Middle risk subjects had begun sexual activity at earlier ages and were younger at first pregnancy. They also reported having sexual partners who resided both on and neededd reservations, which could facilitate transmission of HIV ameircan from urban to rural areas, and encourage spread of HIV into small communities. It was estimated that about 2, range 1, to antive, men and about range to women were infected with HIV.

Duringabout 35 infants would have been born to mothers infected with HIV, and, of these, approximately 11 infants would have been infected perinatally. May found the lowest FAS rates 1. A behavioral risk factor study was conducted at Warm Springs in Oregon in among persons over age Among these women, 60 percent reported blackouts, 42 percent had been arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol, 39 percent had received detoxification treatment, wojan 25 percent had been enrolled in alcohol treatment at least once.

In addition, 31 percent had consumed alcohol during their last pregnancy.

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From this sample, 23 were found to meet two criteria, and 19 were evaluated. All mothers were over age 30 and had consumed alcohol during pregnancy there was no assessment of cigarette smoking, inhalant use, or cocaine use.

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One mother had two children with FAS. A total of seven of the eight children were in foster placement when assessed. Another comprehensive program africzn 48 high-risk Navajo women, of whom 81 percent participated. During the s, sterilization procedures free dirty talk performed on poor minority women black, Hispanic, and Native American.

In a sample of four out of 12 IHS service areas, 3, Native American women were found to have been sterilized during — Of these women, The IHS now uses protocols to protect patients' rights for both sterilizations, 53 and for the depot contraceptive Norplant. Only tubal ligation and vasectomy are acceptable, and hysterectomy is prohibited for purposes of sterilization. Sterilization is prohibited for patients under age 21, patients incapable of giving informed consent i.

Informed consent must be documented, and rules of the Department of Health and Human Services must be followed. These rules require that consent be obtained 30 days prior to the procedure routinely, or after 72 hours has elapsed in the case of emergency abdominal surgery. Consent for sterilization cannot be obtained when a woman is in labor, seeking to needec an abortion, or under the influence of alcohol or any other mind-altering substance.

Care providers are encouraged to seek informed consent during the second trimester of pregnancy to avoid exceeding a day limitation for any specific informed consent ature. Norplant, which now has been used by half a million women in nearly 50 countries, has been available to the IHS since January Generally, Norplant candidates are advised that five years is an optimal time period. Interestingly, Norplant is efficacious because it reduces the amount of cervical mucus and increases its beeded, creating a barrier preventing migration of sperm through the cervix into the uterus.

It inhibits growth of the endometrium and in some patients it suppresses ovulation. The mucus barrier is believed to potentially decrease risk of pelvic infectious disease PID. High priority patients are women with medical conditions for whom pregnancy might endanger health, women who have recently had an abortion, sexually active teenagers with one or more children, sexually active teenagers with parental consent who have plans for career or college education, agrican women in their twenties who are not ready to contemplate permanent sterilization.

Its use is contraindicated in women who are pregnant, have undiagnosed abdominal-uterine bleeding, known or possible breast cancer, thrombo-embolic disease, gay women chat liver disease.

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Other contraindications include migraine headaches, severe obesity, or moderate to severe acne. Norplant is inadvisable for women over age nfeded, since its use may obscure onset of occult endometrial neoplasia. Any woman planning to have children within four years is advised to seek another contraceptive method. Infant mortality rates for American Indians are difficult to calculate. Accurate rates depend on identification as American Indian on both birth and death certificates.

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Several studies have shown that high rates about 20 percent in some areas of misclassification occur when births and deaths occur outside of IHS facilities. Primary causes of neonatal first 28 days of life death are congenital anomalies, respiratory distress syndrome, disorders related to short gestation and low birthweight less than gramsSIDS, effects of maternal complications of pregnancy, and infections specific to the perinatal period. Infant mortality and neonatal death rates vary across the IHS service areas, with lowest rates in the southwestern states and highest in the northern plains and northwest states.

A meta-analysis of cancer incidence rates in American Indians versus the general population 61 found reduced incidence of cancer at most sites. Decreased incidence was noted for colon, breast, and uterine cancer. However, increased rates of cervical cancer were observed. Another meta-analysis of cancer incidence in Indian people 62 found women to have elevated rates of cancers of the gallbladder, cervix, and kidney, but decreased rates for cancers of the colon, breast, and uterus, and for lymphomas.

Rates of lung cancer and leukemias were similar. Risk for kidney cancer is associated with obesity, cigarette smoking, and occupational exposures. As noted, obesity occurs for more than half of Indian indian live sex chat, and cigarette smoking by Indian women in some regions is more common than among women in the general population. Gallbladder cancer is associated with benign gallbladder disease as well as obesity and parity, and is more prevalent among Indian than white women.

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The overall lower cancer mortality rate may be influenced by more immediate causes of excess deaths, such as diabetes, accidents, or infectious diseases. Respiratory diseases that most severely affect Indian mortality are pneumonia, cancer of the lung, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPDand tuberculosis. Pneumonia rates for Indian people were slightly higher, Lung cancer rates for Indian males From tono emphysema deaths were reported for Indian women or men. Inthe incidence of tuberculosis in American Indians was In The of cases reported for women dropped from in to in These rates are not indicative of tuberculosis secondary to AIDS.

The goal for Healthy People is to reduce the incidence rate to 5 perAdequate screening, contact tracing, and treatment efforts by the IHS are being mobilized to attain this objective. Rising rates of cardiovascular disease among Native Americans are chat latino burnaby focus of the "Strong Heart Study. The study focuses on persons ages 35 to 74 and includes a mortality survey to estimate death rates from cardiovascular disease, a morbidity study to estimate incidence of initial and recurrent myocardial infarctions and CVAs, and clinical examinations to estimate the prevalence of risk factors.

About 1, persons at each site are included in the study. Among the three sites 1, females and 1, males were enrolled in a to year-old cohort, and 2, females and 2, males were enrolled in a to year-old cohort. Prevalence of myocardial infarction, as diagnosed by electrocardiogram, was highest in North and South Dakota Sioux, lower in Indians residing in Oklahoma, and lowest among Pima in Arizona. Contributory factors varied among the three locations. Cholesterol levels were local adult phone chat south burlington among the Pima, who also had the lowest rate of tobacco smokers.

Hypertension was high in Oklahoma tribes and the Pima. All groups had high rates of diabetes and of obesity, but rates were highest among the Pima. Interestingly, more than 90 percent of Pima reported "full-blooded" heritage, in contrast to 73 percent of the Oklahoma tribes and less than half of the Sioux. It is asserted that mental health problems, including depression, anxiety, suicide, and substance abuse, are greater among Native Americans. In the absence of systematic research in psychiatric epidemiology, localized studies of small samples provide some empirical data.

A study conducted in used the S-L to conduct a point prevalence survey among men and women residing in a rural village. Men Men also had diagnoses of organic disorders, schizophrenia, PTSD, and personality disorders, but no women met these criteria.

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In an unpublished study, of urban Indian women, There continue to be gaps in assessment and treatment of mental health problems, including limited availability of outpatient mental health treatment, lack of specialized services for adolescents, and insufficient staff. IHS and tribal-based substance abuse services often lack ability to serve the needs of persons with concurrent depression or other disorders.

In FY 92, an estimatedpersons received prevention and intervention services. However, no rates for men versus women are available. In the absence of cross-sectional survey data, information from tribal groups or enclaves sketch the parameters of this problem. It should be noted, however, that American Indians and Alaska Natives have attracted disproportionate attention because of reputed excessive alcoholism.

One observer stated: "Perhaps no other ethnic group has had more written about their drinking behavior than Native Americans. High rates of both heavy drinking and abstinence occur among American Indians. Abstinence was lowest in Ojibwa 16 percent and Ute 20 percentfollowed by Standing Rock Sioux 42 percentand highest among Navajo 70 percent. The highest alcohol use occurs among men age 16 to 29, and usually diminishes after age 35 or 40, so that 30 to 50 percent of middle-aged male abstainers are former moderate or heavy drinkers.

A comparison of Indians of various tribes who lived in Los Angeles with 86 Indians who lived in rural California 75 found that the urban Indians were about three times more likely to drink two or manchester chat times daily However, about 60 percent of reservations officially prohibit alcohol use, and prohibition prompts persons who wish to purchase alcohol to drive long distances to obtain it and to drink while driving.

The seriousness of alcohol abuse among Native Americans is reflected in rates of alcoholism-related deaths deaths attributable to alcohol dependence and alcoholic psychoses as well as liver cirrhosis and chronic liver disease specified as alcoholic. Inthe death rate for Native Americans was Alcohol problems appear to be strongly multigenerational among Native Americans.

Although Beginning in the seventeenth century, 80 s of explorers and missionaries recorded impressions of intoxication occurring among people who had no experience with wine, brandy, and later, rum. May succinctly summarizes the emergence of commonplace beliefs about the effects of alcohol on Native Americans. Boise chat the early s, numerous investigators studied hypothesized differences in sensitivity to alcohol and in metabolism of alcohol in various Asian and Native American groups.

One hypothesis is that persons with increased alcohol metabolism experience rapidly decreased intoxication and, in turn, increase their consumption, while decreased consumption occurs among persons with decreased alcohol metabolism that in more persistent intoxication. Increased sensitivity to alcohol is manifested by facial and body "flushing" peripheral vasodilatationincreased heart rate, decreased blood pressure, diaphoresis, nausea, headaches, diarrhea, general dysphoria, rapid absorption and elimination of alcohol, and rapid increase in acetaldehyde levels.

Intolerance to alcohol may somehow confer protection from alcohol abuse.

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Nevertheless, evidence for increased alcohol sensitivity in American Indians is equivocal. Wolff found increased facial flushing in Cree Indians, 87 and faster rates of alcohol metabolism occurred in Ojibwa Indians than in Chinese and Caucasian subjects. Emerging interest in the genetics of alcoholism has again stimulated investigation of characteristics of Native Americans. Interest in the DRD2 dopamine receptor genotype prompted investigation among Cheyenne Indian men, since their frequency of the DRD2 marker allele is fourfold that of Caucasians.

Other investigators are examining frequency of alcohol dehydrogenase alleles and family history of alcoholism in Indian men in California. Studies of alcohol sensitivity in American Indians and Alaska Natives require rigorous elicitation of pedigrees in order to establish genetic composition of experimental groups as well as to diminish possible effects of individual differences cf.

Careful selection and matching of subjects and controls sext me losing my mind are necessary, especially since there are differences in body structure, composition, and weight, as well as nutritional status and drinking patterns, 91 gender differences in body water distribution, 99 and dirty chat uk "first pass" gastric metabolism. There is a definite need to undertake formal studies of prevalence, incidence, and contributory factors of disease among American Indian groups.

To date, health status of American Indians served by the Indian Health Service appears best examined through clinical contacts.

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However, it also appears important to identify urban areas with large concentrations of Native American peoples in order to conduct appropriate surveys. American Indian and Alaska Native women should be involved in development of methods of contraception. As noted, fertility and infant mortality among American Indians have demographic profiles similar to those of Third World nations.

That is, there is both a high birthrate and a high infant mortality rate. The need for contraception to reduce the high birthrate and its complications, the high infant mortality rate, and transmission of alcohol-induced insult to the fetus is apparent. However, more permanent contraceptive methods are chats bolivia with ethical concerns.

A recent publication by the IHS indicated that rates of gonorrhea, chlamydia, primary and secondary syphilis, and PID exceeded rates for all races. Rates in urban and rural settings were comparable, an unexpected finding.